firearms

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Cartridges Russia

7.62x39 submachine gun cartridges

7.62 mm submachine gun cartridges

7.62 mm submachine gun cartridges

    Experience of the Second World War has shown necessity of new kind manual personal automatic weapon generation for infantry with an intermediate power cartridge instead of rifles and pistol-machine guns. In the USSR new cartridge development has begun in 1943 at OKB-44, subsequently TSNIITOCHMASH. Development of various cartridges for new weapon proceeded till 1948. At 1949 cartridges with ordinary, armour piercing incendiary, incendiary and tracer bullets have been accepted on arms simultaneously with 7.62mm Kalashnikov's submachine gun 1947 model (AK). At the same time blank and dummy cartridges have been accepted on arms also.
     Subsequently manufacture of cartridges with armour piercing and incendiary bullets has been refused. At the beginning of 1960 years cartridge with subsonic initial speed for shooting from the submachine gun with silencer PBS1 has been created.
     Improvement of 7.62mm cartridge 1943 model was executed at 1980-90 with the purpose of its breakdown action increasing (for a steel core bullet) and also tracing range and tracer ignition delay increasing (for tracer cartridges). Up to 1984 tubular nitroglycerine gunpowder was applied to 7.62mm cartridge 1943 model and from 1984 nitroglycerine gunpowder of spherical graining has begun to be applied for these purposes. Originally the cartridge was produced only with a bimetallic cartridge case made from steel plated tombac. At the beginning of 1960, a number of enterprises have started to manufacture steel lacquered cartridge case. And at the beginning of 2000 manufacture of a steel cartridge case with a polymeric covering has been mastered.

 

Cartridges with ordinary bullet 7.62 PS (57-N-231)

Cartridges with ordinary bullet 7.62 PS (57-N-231)
Cartridges with ordinary bullet 7.62 PS (57-N-231)

     
  General properties of cartridges 7.62 PS

Weight of a cartridge, g...................................................16.3
Weight of a bullet, g.........................................................7.9
Length of a cartridge, mm.................................................56
Muzzle velocity, m/s.........................................................725
 
 

   7.62mm cartridge 1943 model with a steel core bullet 7.62 PS is intended for military personnel defeat. Since 1984 when gunpowder of spherical graining began to use instead of rifle pyroxylin gunpowder the ledge for packaged facilitation has been executed on a bullet back part. These bullets have weight 7.9 g and punch out a steel helmet at range up to 900 m. The bullets have no distinctive painting. Since 1989 heightened hardness heat-strengthened core have started to apply for increasing bullets breakdown action. The bullets breakdown action with the new core for firm barriers has increased in 1.5-2 times. The bullets have no distinctive painting. The new cartridge can be distinguished from non heat-strengthened core cartridges due to year model.

Bullet 7,62 PS (57-H-231)
Bullet 7,62 PS (57-H-231)

 

Cartridges with tracer bullet 7.62 T-45 и 7.62 Т-45М (57-Т-231Р и 57-Т231РМ1)

Cartridge with a tracer bullet - 7.62 T-45 (T-57-231P)
Cartridge with a tracer bullet - 7.62 T-45 (T-57-231P)

     
  General properties of cartridges 7.62 T-45

Weight of a cartridge, g...................................................16.1
Weight of a bullet, g.........................................................7.6
Length of a cartridge, mm.................................................56
Muzzle velocity, m/s.........................................................725
 
 

    7.62mm cartridge 1943 model with tracer bullet T-45 7.62 T-45 is intended for target designation and fire correction at range up to 800m and also for military personnel defeat. The cartridge is produced with bimetallic or steel lacquered cartridge case.
     Tracer gives a bright shone red color trace well visible both day and night. The bullet is capable to ignite inflammable subjects at hit in its.
     At the end of 1990 tracer modernization has been performed at TSNIITOCHMASH.
     The new cartridge with advanced tracer bullet T-45M has been accepted on arms at 2002. Modernization has allowed increasing the tracing range up to 850 m and has provided the beginning of tracer composition burning at 50-120 m from muzzle. Such delay of tracer ignition allows camouflaging a rifleman position better and provides continuous supervision over a battlefield through night observation sights with optoelectronic converters. Bullet head part of all tracer cartridges is painted in green color.

Bullet 7,62 T-45 (57-T-231P)
Bullet 7,62 T-45 (57-T-231P)

 

Cartridges with armour piercing incendiary and incendiary bullets
7.62 BZ (57-BZ-231) and 7.62 Z (57-Z-231)

Cartridge with armor-piercing incendiary bullet - 7.62 BZ (57-BZ-231)
Cartridge with armor-piercing incendiary bullet - 7.62 BZ (57-BZ-231)

Cartridge with incendiary bullet - 7.62 Z (57-3-231)
Cartridge with incendiary bullet - 7.62 Z (57-3-231)

    7.62mm cartridge 1943 model with armour piercing incendiary 7.62 BZ and incendiary 7.62 Z bullets were produced till to the beginning 1960 years. The cartridges was intended for light armouring targets defeat, fuel ignition which is being behind the armours or in thick-walled container and also for military personnel defeat which are being behind light armoured coverings.

 

Armor-piercing incendiary bullet - 7.62 BZ (57-BZ-231)
Armor-piercing incendiary bullet - 7.62 BZ (57-BZ-231)

 

Cartridge with reduced speed bullet 7.62 US (57-N-231U)

Cartridge with reduced speed bullet 7.62 US (57-N-231U)
Cartridge with reduced speed bullet 7.62 US (57-N-231U)

     
  General properties of cartridges 7.62 US

Weight of a cartridge, g.....................................................20
Weight of a bullet, g.......................................................12.6
Length of a cartridge, mm.................................................56
Muzzle velocity, m/s.........................................................300
 
 

    7.62 mm cartridge with reduced speed bullet 7.62 US has been accepted on arms at 1962 simultaneously with the muzzle cap silencer for Kalashnikov's submachine gun received the name «Device of silent and flame-free firing PBS-1». Cartridge and silencer have been developed at TSNIITOCHMASH PBS-1 with a cartridge 7.62 US provides silent aimed fire from submachine gun AKM at range up to 400m.
     The bullet with the reduced speed has the greater weight and length in comparison with ordinary bullets. The bullet core is made from strong steel for maintenance of necessary breakdown action.
     The cartridge is made with bimetallic or steel lacquered cartridge case.
     The bullet has subsonic muzzle velocity and does not create a ballistic wave on a trajectory and the silencer PBS-1 reduces speed of the gases expiration from chase up to subsonic speed. Reduced speed bullet is capable to punch out a steel helmet at range up to 400 m and anti-fragmentation flak jacket at range up to 75 m.
     Bullet head part is black with a green rib.

A bullet with a reduced rate 7.62 US (57-N-231U)
A bullet with a reduced rate 7.62 US (57-N-231U)

 

Cartridge with armour piercing bullet 7.62 BP (7N23)

Cartridge with armour piercing bullet 7.62 BP (7N23)
Cartridge with armour piercing bullet 7.62 BP (7N23)

     
  General properties of cartridges 7.62 BP

Weight of a cartridge, g...................................................16.3
Weight of a bullet, g.........................................................7.9
Length of a cartridge, mm..................................................56
Muzzle velocity, m/s..........................................................740
 
 

    Creation of rather light anti-bullet flak jackets with a high level security and equipping land forces divisions of many armies of the world by its at 1980-1990 was the reason to improve a cartridge with an ordinary bullet. At the end of 1990 such modernization has been lead at Barnaul Cartridge Plant. The form, material and heat treatment process of core have undergone changes during modernization.
     As a result the bullet was made as a matter of fact as armour piercing bullet New 7.62mm cartridge 1943 model with armour piercing bullet 7.62 BP has been accepted on arms at 2002.
     The armour piercing bullet ensure the defeat of military personnel in personal armoured protective equipment located openly or behind light shelters, various weapon means and unarmoured technical equipment.
     The new cartridge has surpassed more than three times a cartridge with ordinary bullet on breakdown firm barrier. Thus it is provided trajectory associativity of a new cartridge bullet with a steel core bullet.
     Bullet head part is black.

Armor-piercing bullet 7,62 BP (7N23)
Armor-piercing bullet 7,62 BP (7N23)

Cartridge with lowered ricochet ability bullet 7.62 PRS

Cartridge with lowered ricochet ability bullet 7.62 PRS
Cartridge with lowered ricochet ability bullet 7.62 PRS

     
  General properties of cartridges 7.62 PRS

Weight of a cartridge, g..................................................16.9
Weight of a bullet, g.........................................................8.0
Length of a cartridge, mm.................................................56
Muzzle velocity, m/s.........................................................725
 
 

    At 2002-2003 a number of cartridges with lowered ricochet ability bullet (PRS) have been developed for divisions of the Ministry of Interior of Russia.
     Unlike ordinary bullets there is no steel core in bullet of PRS type. Necessity of special cartridges creation this type is connected with features of tactical application of Ministry of Interior special divisions which spend the most part of operations or special operations in settlements. Under such conditions small arms fire is performed on small range. In such situations high muzzle velocity of ordinary bullets with steel core leads to a plenty of ricochets from walls of buildings, concrete fences, road covering and others, it creases real threat of personnel defeat. Bullets of PRS type are rumpled at hit in firm barrier, quickly lose speed and do not give such quantity of dangerous ricochets like bullet with the steel core.
     At the beginning of 2000 7.62 mm cartridge with lowered ricochet ability bullet 7.62 PRS 1943 model has been created by joint efforts of experts from CJSC Barnaul Cartridge Plant and State Institution Research and Production Association "Special equipment and communication” under Ministry of Interior of Russia order.
     The cartridge is intended for submachine gunshooting as AKM. AK-103 and AK-104. This cartridge surpasses a cartridge 7.62 PS on close grouping of shots due to steel core absence. Under such conditions full trajectory associativity of lowered ricochet ability bullet with an ordinary bullet is provided.
     The bullet has no distinctive painting but branding "PRS" in addition to factory number and manufacturing year is available on head-rounding of a cartridge case.

A bullet ricochets with a reduced ability to 7,62 PRS
A bullet ricochets with a reduced ability to 7,62 PRS

 

Blank cartridges 7.62 blank cartridge 1943 model (57-Н-231) and PHS 19

Blank cartridge - 7.62 1943 model (57-Н-231)
Blank cartridge - 7.62 1943 model (57-Н-231)

Blank cartridge - PHS 19
Blank cartridge - PHS 19

    7.62 blank cartridge 1943 model is used for imitation of submachine and manual machine guns shot sound during training riflemen and also for producing of salutes The blank cartridge ensures the movable parts functioning of weapon automatic together with the bushing for the blank shooting screwed on a chase of submachine gun or a Sight machine gun and allowing creating necessary pressure of gunpowder gases on the channel of a barrel. The shot is accompanied by sound, flame flash and smoke.
     The bank cartridge differs from live cartridge by absence of a bullet and extended muzzle of a cartridge case. Muzzle of a cartridge case is pressed out by six-beam star and covered by sealing lacquer layer. 7.62 blank cartridge 1943 model is shorter than live cartridge and its length is 48.2mm. Blank cartridges are produced with bimetallic or steel lacquered cartridge case.
     Special blank cartridge PHS19 (special blank cartridge) made on cartridge case basis of cartridge 1943 model was used for grenade throwing from 30 mm silent rifle-attached grenade launcher of small arms-grenade launcher complex «Tishina». Cartridge case muzzle of this cartridge is pressed out by star. This cartridge is shorter than a blank cartridge.

Dummy cartridge 7.62 UCh 1943 model (57-N-231 UCh)

Dummy cartridge 7.62 UCh 1943 model (57-N-231 UCh)
Dummy cartridge 7.62 UCh 1943 model (57-N-231 UCh)

    Dummy cartridges are used for training of weapon charging, firing shot and magazines equipping technique. Dummy cartridge is performed due to basic details usage of cartridge with ordinary steel core bullet 7.62 PS but does not contain a propelling powder and has inefficient percussion cap fuse. Cartridge is produced with bimetallic or steel lacquered cartridge case. Hardening of bullet fastening in cartridge case muzzle is provided by additional compression muzzle along a bullet in order to prevent its loss during weapon loading training.
     The dummy cartridge bullet has no distinctive painting but four sym metrically located longitudinal extrusions are made on a cartridge case of a cartridge.