The extraordinary growth of the World Wide Web has been fueled by the ability it gives authors to easily and cheaply distribute electronic documents to an international audience.
As Web documents have become larger and more complex, however, Web content providers have begun to experience the limitations of a medium that does not provide the extensibility, structure, and data checking needed for large-scale commercial publishing.
The ability of Java applets to embed powerful data manipulation capabilities in Web clients makes even clearer the limitations of current methods for the transmittal of document data.
HTML is яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл simple language well suited for hypertext, multimedia, and the display of small and reasonably simple documents. SGML allows documents to describe their own grammar--that is, to specify the tag set used in the document and the structural relationships that those tags represent. Freezing a small set of tags allows users to leave the language specification out of the document and makes it much easier to build applications, but this ease comes at the cost of severely limiting HTML in several important respects, chief among which are extensibility, structure, and validation.
SGML makes it possible to define your own formats for your own documents, to handle large and complex documents, and to manage large information repositories. The goal of the W3C SGML activity is to enable the delivery of self-describing data structures of arbitrary depth and complexity to applications that яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл such structures.
The first phase of this effort is the specification of a simplified subset of SGML specially designed for Web applications. XML has been designed for maximum expressive power, maximum teachability, and maximum ease of implementation. These applications can be divided into four broad categories:. The alternative to XML for these applications is proprietary code embedded as "script elements" in HTML documents and delivered in conjunction with proprietary browser plug-ins or Java applets.
XML derives from a philosophy that data belongs to its creators and that content providers are best served by a data format that does not bind them to particular script languages, authoring tools, and delivery engines but provides a standardized, vendor-independent, level playing field upon which different authoring and delivery tools may freely complete. A paradigmatic example of this first category of XML applications is the information tracking system for a home health care agency.
Information management is critical to this industry in order to meet the record-keeping requirements of the federal agencies and health maintenance organizations that pay for patient care. The typical patient entering a home health care agency is represented to the information system by a large collection of paper-based historical materials in the form of patient medical histories and billing data from a variety of doctors, hospitals, pharmacies, and insurance companies.
The coming of the Web has given the medical informatics community the hope that an electronic means can be found to alleviate this burden. Hospitals have begun яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл offer the agencies a solution that goes something like this:.
The knowledgeable reader may smile at яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл "solution," but in fact this is not a joke; this is an actual proposal from a large American hospital known for its early adoption of advanced medical information systems. The only difference between this version and the previous one is that it saves the paper that would have been needed for the printout.
It does nothing to address the root of the problem. A real solution would look more like this:. One technically feasible way to implement seamless яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл of patient care records is simply to require all hospitals and health care agencies to use a single standard system dictated by the government such an approach has actually been suggested.
In an environment where hospitals are going out of business on a daily basis and many health care agencies are in deep financial difficulty, however, a scheme that en masse is hardly practical. The other way to enable interchange between heterogeneous systems is to adopt a single industry-wide interchange format that serves as the single output format for all exporting systems and the single input format for all importing systems.
A number of industries, including the aerospace, automotive, telecommunications, and computer software industries, have been using hub languages to perform data interchange for years, and by this time the process is well understood.
Typically, the major players in an industry form a standards consortium tasked with defining a Document Type Definition, which is the way in which the tag set and grammar of a markup language are яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл. This DTD can then be sent with documents that have been marked up in the industry standard language using off-the-shelf editing tools, and any standard application on the receiving end can validate and process them.
XML merely extends this proven approach to document interchange over the Web. Interestingly, the same day on which the first XML 1.
Previous vertical-industry efforts have shown that capturing data in a rich markup often has benefits beyond the immediate requirements of data exchange. The health care example is relevant not only because of the scope of the problem and the enormous sums of money involved but also because it is paradigmatic of a very wide range of future Web applications--any in which Web clients or Java applications running on those clients are expected to mediate the lossless exchange of complex data between systems that use different forms of data representation in a way that can be standardized across an industry or other interest яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл.
Some random examples of such applications are:. A paradigmatic example of this second category of XML applications is the data delivery system designed by the semiconductor industry. Each major semiconductor manufacturer maintains several terabytes of technical data on all of the ICs that it produces.
The consortium finished that specification inand its member companies are now well into the implementation яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл of the process. One might think that the rise in popularity of HTML would cause the Pinnacles members to reconsider their decision, but in fact the limitations of HTML have convinced them that their original strategy was the correct one.
Their initial idea was that the richly parameterized data stream made possible by the industry-specific SGML markup would enable intelligent applications not merely to display semiconductor data sheets as readable documents but actually to drive design processes.
The semiconductor application is a good demonstration of the advantages of XML because:. Note that validation, while sometimes important, does not always play the crucial role in this category of applications that it does in applications where data must be checked for structural integrity before entering a database.
To make processing as efficient as яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл, XML has been designed so that validation is optional in applications where it is not needed. As with the health-care example, the semiconductor application is notable not merely for the sheer size of the market it represents but also because it is paradigmatic of an enormous range of future Java-based Web applications -- virtually any application in which standardized data is expected to be manipulated in interesting ways on the client.
Perhaps the most obvious examples of such applications are the following:. A harbinger of applications to come in the last category is the Solution Exchange Standard, an SGML markup language announced in June яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл a consortium of over 60 hardware, software, and communications companies to facilitate the exchange of technical support information among vendors, system integrators, and corporate help desks.
In the words of the announcement:. The standard has been designed to be flexible. It is independent of any platform, vendor or application, so it can be used to exchange solution information without regard to the system it is coming from or going to. SGML offers room for growth and extensibility, so the standard can easily accommodate rapidly changing support environments. Such applications, which the XML subset is specifically designed to address, will grow in importance as consumers come to expect interoperability among their data-manipulating applets and information providers confront the realities of trying to support computation-intensive tasks directly on their Web servers.
A third variety of XML applications are those in which users may wish to switch between different views of the data without requiring that the data be downloaded again in a different form from the Web server. One early application яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл this category will be dynamic tables of contents.
It is possible now, using Web servers built on object-oriented databases, to present the user with a table of contents into a large collection of data that can be expanded with a mouse click to "open up" a portion of the TOC and reveal more detailed levels of the document structure. Dynamic TOCs of this kind can be generated at run time directly from the hierarchical structure of the document.
Unfortunately, the Web latency built into every expansion or contraction of the TOC makes this process sluggish in many user environments. Яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл much better solution is to download the entire structured TOC to the client rather than just individual server-generated views of the TOC. Then the user can expand, contract, and move about in the TOC supported by a much faster process running directly on the client.
A group at Sun actually implemented a form of this solution as part of a Java-based HTML help browser, but the limitations of HTML required the team to come up with a couple of clever workarounds.
In this application, a TOC was constructed by hand the lack of structure in ordinary HTML makes it impossible to reliably generate a TOC directly from the document using nonstandard tags invented for the purpose, and then the TOC piece was wrapped in a comment within an HTML page to hide the nonstandard markup from Web browsers.
In practice, this application worked very well and testified both to the ingenuity of its designers and to the validity of the basic concept.
Instead, standard XML editors would have been used to create structured content from which a structured TOC could be generated at run time and downloaded to browsers that would automatically create and display the TOC using either a downloaded Java applet or a standard set of JavaHelp class libraries.
The ability to capture and transmit semantic and structural data made possible by XML greatly expands the range of possibilities for client-side manipulation of the way data appears to the user.
This list only hints at the possible uses that creative Web designers will find for richly structured data delivered in a standardized way to Яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл clients.
A future domain for XML applications will arise when intelligent Web agents begin to make larger demands for structured data than can easily be conveyed by HTML. Perhaps the earliest applications in this category will be those in which user preferences must be represented in a standard way to mass media providers.
The key requirements for such applications have been summed up by Matthew Fuchs of Disney Imagineering: Consider a personalized TV guide for the fabled channel cable TV system. This second requirement can be met only by a standardized system that uses many specialized tags to convey specific attributes of a particular program offering subject category, audience category, leading actors, length, date made, critical rating, specialized content, language, etc.
Exactly the same requirements would apply to customized newspapers яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл many. While such applications still lie over the horizon, it is obvious that they will play an increasingly important role in our lives and that their implementation will require XML-like data in order to function interoperably and thereby allow intelligent Web agents to compete effectively in an open market. XML-based metadata initiatives, which began after this paper was written have given an early demonstration of the validity of this approach.
Despite its name and all of the publicity that has surrounded HTML, this so-called "hypertext markup language" actually implements just a tiny amount of the functionality that has historically been associated with the concept of hypertext systems. Only the simplest form of linking is supported--unidirectional links to hardcoded locations. This is a far cry from the systems that were built and proven during the s and s.
In a true hypertext system of the kind envisioned for the XML effort, there will be standardized syntax for all of the classic hypertext linking mechanisms:.
The first draft of a specification for basic standardized hypertext mechanisms to be used in conjunction with XML was released at the Sixth World Wide Web Conference in April, The current CSS cascading style sheets effort provides a style mechanism well suited to the relatively low-level demands of HTML but incapable of supporting the greatly expanded range of rendering techniques made possible by extensible structured markup.
The counterpart to XML яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл a stylesheet programming language that is:. This specification will be further developed as part of the XML activity. HTML functions well as a markup for the publication of simple documents and as a transportation envelope for downloadable scripts. However, the need to support the much greater information requirements of standardized Java applications will necessitate the development of a standard, яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл, structured language and similarly expanded linking and stylesheet mechanisms.
The W3C SGML effort is actively developing a set of specifications that will allow these objectives to be met within an open standards environment. The author would like to thank his colleagues in the Davenport Group for early contributions to the beginnings of this document.
He is a founding member of SGML Open and was for several years a sponsor of the Davenport Group, which maintains the industry-standard DocBook markup language for software documentation.
HTML does not allow users to specify their own tags or attributes in order to parameterize or otherwise semantically qualify their data. HTML does not support the specification of deep structures needed to represent database schemas or object-oriented hierarchies. HTML does not support the kind of language specification that allows consuming applications to check data for structural validity on importation.
Information providers can define new tag and attribute names at will. Document structures can be nested to any level of complexity. Any XML document can contain an optional description of its grammar for use by applications that need to perform structural validation.
These applications can be divided into four broad categories: Applications that require the Web client to mediate between two or more heterogeneous databases. Applications that attempt to distribute a significant proportion of the processing load from the Web server to the Web client. Applications that require яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл Web client to present different views of the same data to different users.
Applications in which intelligent Web agents attempt to tailor information discovery to the needs of individual users. The Universal Hub A paradigmatic example of this first category of XML applications яндекс xml.самые большие задницы жирных опытных блидей порновидео яндекс нашл the information tracking system for a home health care agency.
Hospitals have begun to offer the agencies a solution that goes something like this: Become an authorized user. Print out the records from the browser. Manually key in the data from the printouts.
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